There's A Brief History of the Stratocaster Part I and Part II that follows the evolution of the most popular Fender guitar of all.
Similarly, take a look at Behold the Jazzmaster for general timeline of the history of everyone's favorite offset guitar.
Instead, the best approach to dating a Fender is to combine indicators from the design of the instrument, the dates found on the neck and body, along with the serial number.
Features like bolt-on necks and pickups wired into the pickguard all helped the Fender factory churn out guitar after guitar, day after day.
This also means that various parts used on a particular guitar may have come from different points in time, so no single number can absolutely define when the instrument was built.
Like Henry Ford, part of Leo Fender's genius was in optimizing the company's production efficiency.
His guitars were built en masse by an entire factory, not a single luthier toiling over one instrument at a time.
For Fender during the turning point era of the mid-'60s, check out Fender and the CBS Takeover.