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Since Independence in 1947, India and Pakistan have been in four wars, including one undeclared war, and many border skirmishes and military stand-offs.
An attack by Muslim tribesmen in October 1947 prompted Maharaja Hari Singh to seek assistance from India and later to sign an Instrument of Accession, ceding Kashmir to India.
After UN Security Council passed the Resolution 47, India gained control of about two-third of the state including (Kashmir valley, Jammu and Ladakh) whereas Pakistan gained roughly a third of Kashmir (Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan).
India-Pakistan War of 1965 This war started following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was designed to infiltrate forces into Jammu and Kashmir to precipitate an insurgency against rule by India.
India retaliated by launching a full-scale military attack on West Pakistan.
The seventeen-day war caused thousands of casualties on both sides and witnessed the largest engagement of armored vehicles and the largest tank battle since World War II.